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5.8 KiB

KubeZero 1.22

What's new - Major themes

Alpine - Custom AMIs

Starting with 1.22, all KubeZero nodes boot using custom AMIs. These AMIs will be provided and shared by the Zero Down Time for all customers. As always, all sources incl. the build pipeline are freely available here.

This eliminates ALL dependencies at boot time other than container registries. Gone are the days when Ubuntu, SuSE or Github decided to ruin your morning coffee.

KubeZero migrates from Ubuntu 20.04 LTS to Alpine v3.15 as its base OS.


  • minimal attack surface by removing all unnecessary bloat,
    like all things SystemD, Ubuntu's snap, etc

  • reduced root file system size from 8GB to 2GB

  • minimal memory consumption of about 12MB fully booted

    Minimal fully booted instance incl. SSH and Monit:

    Ubuntu Alpine
    Memory used 60MB 12 MB
    RootFS used 1.1GB 330 MB
    RootFS encrypted no yes
    Kernel 5.11 5.15
    Init Systemd OpenRC
    AMI / EBS size 8GB 1GB
    Boot time ~120s ~45s
  • Encrypted AMIs:
    This closes the last gaps you might have in achieving full encryption at rest for every volume within a default KubeZero deployment.


On AWS a new dedicated GP3 EBS volume gets provisioned per controller and is used as persistent etcd storage. These volumes will persist for the life time of the cluster and reused by future controller nodes in each AZ.
This ensure no data loss during upgrade or restore situations of single controller clusters. The hourly backup on S3 will still be used as fallback / disaster recovery option in case the file system gets corrupted etc.


The external-dns controller got integrated and is used to provide DNS based loadbalacing for the apiserver itself. This allows high available control planes on AWS as well as bare-metal in combination with various DNS providers.

Further usage of this controller to automate any DNS related configurations, like Ingress etc. is planned for following releases.

Container runtime

Cri-o now uses crun rather than runc, which reduces the memory overhead per pod from 16M to 4M, details at crun intro

With 1.22 and the switch to crun, support for CgroupV2 has been enabled.

AWS Neuron INF support

Initial support for Inf1 instances part of AWS Neuron.

Workers automatically load the custom kernel module on these instance types and expose the /dev/neuron* devices.

Version upgrades

  • Istio to 1.13.3 using the new Helm gateway charts
  • Logging: ECK operator upgraded from 1.6 to 2.1, fluent-bit 1.9.3
  • Metrics: Prometheus and all Grafana charts to latest to match V1.22
  • ArgoCD to V2.2.5
  • AWS EBS/EFS CSI drivers to latest versions
  • cert-manager to V1.8
  • aws-termination-handler to 1.16
  • aws-iam-authenticator to 0.5.7, required for >1.22 which allows using the latest version on the client side again


  • new metrics and dashboards for openEBS LVM CSI drivers
  • new node label for all nodes containing the EC2 instance type
  • kubelet root moved to /var/lib/containers to ensure ephemeral storage is allocated from the configurable volume rather than the root fs of the worker


(No, really, you MUST read this before you upgrade)

  • Ensure your Kube context points to the correct cluster !
  • Ensure any usage of Kiam has been migrated to OIDC providers as any remaining Kiam components will be deleted as part of the upgrade
  1. Migrate ArgoCD KubeZero config:
    cat <cluster/env/kubezero/application.yaml> | ./releases/v1.22/ and adjust if needed and replace the original. Do NOT commit yet !

  2. Upgrade logging and metrics module

  • kubectl get crd && kubectl replace -f CRDs for logging
  • ./ apply logging <env> logging module to support new OS coming with 1.22
  • ./ crds metrics <env> CRDs for metrics
  • ./ apply metrics <env> to get new exporters in place to support 1.22
  1. Trigger the cluster upgrade:

  2. Upgrade CFN stacks for the control plane and all worker groups Change Kubernetes version in controller config from 1.21.9 to 1.22.8

  3. Reboot controller(s) one by one Wait each time for controller to join and all pods running. Might take a while ...

  4. Launch new set of workers, at least enough to host new Istio Ingress gateways due to Kernel requirements Eg. by doubling desired for each worker ASG,

  5. Upgrade via
    As the changes around Istio are substantial in this release we need to upgrade some parts step by step to prevent service outages, especially for private-ingress.

  • ./ crds all <env> to deploy all new CRDs first
  • ./ apply cert-manager <env> to update cert-manager, required for Istio
  • ./ apply istio <env> to update the Istio control plane
  • ./ apply istio-private-ingress <env> to deploy the new private-ingress gateways first
  • ./ apply istio-ingress <env> to update the public ingress and also remove the 1.21 private-ingress gateways
  1. Finalize via ArgoCD
    git add / commit / pusSh <cluster/env/kubezero/application.yaml> and watch ArgoCD do its work.

  2. Drain old workers Drain one by one and reset each ASG to initial "desired" value.